Sunday, November 30, 2014

Power Distribution and Its Key Factors

Power distribution involves the procedure of moving electricity from one location to different locations. Electricity is distributed through electric grids which are quite difficult to maintain. According to studies, the existing distribution infrastructure is insufficient to meet the growing demands of the requirement in different parts of the world. Uninterrupted electricity is indispensable in various fields which include hospitals, public utility centers, military bases, industries, schools and homes.

Factors in Power Distribution

Power distribution begins in an industry where electricity is generated with the use of a turbine with steam, wind or water. When electricity is generated, it is transported to a transformer substation to step up the voltage. It is then allowed to travel through high voltage transmission lines. The transmission lines are then connected to other substations. The voltage is then stepped down so that it is safe for both household and industrial usage. Electric lines are transferred from various substations to homes, industries, factories, offices and many other places.

The electrical grids are specifically designed to supply electricity to different areas. The grids are closely connected to one another to meet the demands of consumers. Power is routed to a place where it is required from the place where it is less used. Balancing the distribution is quite a challenging task. The main aim of power distribution units is to provide a constant and uninterrupted supply to various consumers without the possibility of overloading the entire system.

In the case of individual grids, the supply and demand of electricity can be monitored easily and adjustments can be made accordingly at different levels. Today there are computerized systems which make the adjustments on the grids. Any type of issue with the grid can cause ripple effects on the entire grid. This can cause shortage of electricity.

A standard service drop is offered to customers when they are connected to the grid. Household and domestic lines are offered a lower standard service drop compared to industries and factories which require higher level of electricity.

Use of Distribution Units

Power distribution units are installed to meet the growing demands of consumers. These units are mainly categorized into three types which include the basic unit, the switched unit and the metered unit. The basic units supply incessant electricity to networking units so that it can function continuously. The switched units are quite similar to the basic units but it can reboot automatically. Manual reboot is not necessary in these systems. It can also be switched off manually so as to route electricity to areas where it is in greater demand.

The metered units are also quite similar to the basic units but the consumption amount can be metered with the help of these units. It has additional features which include providing information about the capacity of the unit and its power requirements.

These units are available in different varieties and its purchase also depends on various factors. These electric units enable uninterrupted supply of electricity and also a perfect balance between demand and supply of electricity.

Anamika Swami has wide knowledge of B2B Marketplace and Business industries. Get latest updates on power distribution which are of great demand in B2B space. You can find more free information about electrical appliances at our
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Thursday, November 27, 2014

Happy Thanksgiving!

We Would Like to Wish You and Your Family a Very Safe and Happy Thanksgiving!

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Automation Robotics

The main purpose of automation robotics is to optimize the work that has to be done to effectively complete the tasks required to manufacture products. Automation robotics has special purposes, to minimize the amount of time, effort, and energy that is required to produce a product. It is also needed to reduce the amount of waste of raw materials and rework of products that are not completed to specification. Tasks of automation robotics also include the maximization of quality in products that are finished and the safety that is needed in producing them. The definition of automation robotics is not as important as is the understanding of how to apply it to operate in a manufacturing environment for the purpose of making products in the most cost effective and safe way as possible. An engineer who is responsible for creating an automation scenario for a manufacturing company will draw from his knowledge of how robotics are used to accomplish tasks and his ability to apply robotics in an economical way to build an automation solution.

Automation robotics can have the following characteristics:

- an arm that can be configured in different ways
- a number of degrees of freedom which allows movement in multiple directions
- load-bearing capability
- defined work area
- some control system
- a source of power
- repeatability of tasks performed
- accuracy of tasks performed
- reliability in tasks that are performed

Least complex of the robots in industrial applications are those that do lifting and placing. These devices are the ones that do loading and unloading, pick and place, material movements, and palletizing. The ability to move heavier loads and work in unseemly surroundings are characteristics of these machines. Sometimes these devices replace unskilled labor and usually require low maintenance.

The next level of complexity in robots is occupied by the industrial application devices. These do tasks like spray painting, spot and arc welding, tasks that are normally done by skilled labor. A lot of these tasks are harmful to humans because of dangerous exposures that are generated. This type of device requires the ability of servo or spherical control in order to do their assigned tasks. These robots can use training to get their work defined before they are put to the automation tasks. In some cases sensors are used to help give them consistency in their work. Robotics of this type are very good at cutting operating costs and improving the quality of products that come off the production line.

Looking at the top level of complexity in robotics you can see the devices that perform tasks like assembly of products. Consistency and repeatability are high virtues of these devices. Tooling that is at the end of the arm of this devices has the ability to be very precise in placement of pieces in their proper places. These can make minor adjustment in their work to meet the needs of putting products together correctly.

Since it is the job of robotics to optimize the work in the production environment, it is important to define what tasks can best be done by robotics and what task should be best left to human accomplishment. If two tasks in manufacturing are very similar in characteristic, it is much easier to let a robotic move into the new operation, if it similar to an operation that the robotics has performed earlier. The less similar two jobs are the more likely that a human could make an easier transition to the new task. Human abilities accumulate over a lifetime, while the robotic has to start a new task from zero experience and will require extensive training to accomplish it. Robotics do not have any inherent characteristics like humans do. Some humans will better at some tasks rather than other tasks, while different robotics begin a given task from the same starting point that has zero knowledge or ability.

In deciding whether a human or a robot should do a certain manufacturing task there are certain possibilities that might help to guide you to a decision. If the task is too complicated for a robot to perform within economic reason, then the task should be left to a human to do. A robot would win the chance to perform a task if the job was too dangerous for a human to do, or space or other special considerations come into play. If a robot can generate lower cost, better quality, better consistency, or other positives then the robot would win the job.

There are definite decisions that you must make when you are deciding to put a robotic to work in the place of a human. Even the possibility of labor shortage would be a reason for putting a robotic to work.

John Mitchell, the author of this article, is President of Provision, Inc, an online publisher of information about the uses of automation in manufacturing. The company website,, allows companies to submit requests for quotation to automation specialists.
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Friday, November 21, 2014

Groundwater Remediation, A Pressing Need in Today's Times

Water pollution today has reached alarming levels in most parts of the world. Surface freshwater bodies like ponds, lakes, streams and rivers have become increasingly polluted. This has resulted in groundwater becoming an important source of drinking water in many countries. In the U.S alone over half the population depends on groundwater supply for daily water needs. Groundwater is today used for a variety of purposes from agriculture to industrial, to irrigate large farms as well as in the production of goods.

Groundwater pollution causes

Increased human activities like construction and mining have resulted in pollution percolating into natural groundwater reservoirs. Some of the causes of groundwater pollution also include stagnant storm and rain water as well as surface water runoffs containing high amount of chemicals and organic waste like sewage. This results in large scale contamination of groundwater resources rendering it unfit for human use.

Groundwater remediation

Along with waste water treatment plants which seek to use recycled water, groundwater remediation has also become an important initiative to provide safe and clean water for human use as well as conserve the environment. Groundwater remediation involves specialized equipment and experience to conduct the various purification operations. Groundwater filtration involves removal of solid and dissolved impurities which includes organic material, chemical substances as well as gaseous elements.

Different remediation techniques

There are different techniques used to purify groundwater. An effective method involves use of vacuum machinery to pump out groundwater for treatment as well as extraction of gaseous vapors from ground water and soil. The method known as dual phase extraction makes use of carbon adsorption process by way of granular activated carbon filters and portable water filtration units.
Most groundwater remediation techniques use a combination of different methods for water purification depending upon the requirements. For example if the groundwater contains a high concentration of heavy metals then chemical precipitation reaction is used to ensure conversion of the metal ions into insoluble compounds. These particles are then removed by way of simple filtration or by way of settling chambers.

Activated carbon particles

Activated carbon is an important part of the purification process owing to its high surface area which causes organic impurities to chemically bind to the carbon particles. This process is known as adsorption and is highly efficient in removing dissolved organic impurities which even boiling the water does not render harmless. Active carbon is used in the form of fine granules spread out over a wire mesh to further increase their surface area for maximum effectiveness.

Groundwater remediation is an important aspect of maintaining public health and as such should be conducted at regular intervals by the concerned health authorities.

Ashley writes for about the various ways in which the effects of pollution can be remedied. For more information about environmental solution visit our site.
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Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

What is SCADA?


SCADA or Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition is a large scale control system for automated industrial processes like municipal water supplies, power generation, steel manufacturing, gas and oil pipelines etc. SCADA also has applications in large scale experimental facilities like those used in nuclear fusion. SCADA systems monitor and control these operations by gathering data from sensors at the facility or remote station and then sending it to a central computer system that manages the operations using this information.

The SCADA System

The sheer size and of the operations we saw earlier demands that the control system be equally elaborate to handle the requirements. This is where SCADA scores. The SCADA system is equipped to manage anything from a few thousands to a million input/output channels. The technology is still evolving and we can expect an expansion of the market for SCADA. A full fledged SCADA system is made up of signal hardware for input/ output, networks, control equipment, user interface (sometimes called the Human-Machine Interface or HMI), communication equipment and the software to go with it all. And here we are talking about the central command system of SCADA. The central system is often miles away from where the operations take place. Thus the system also needs on-site sensors to collect and monitor data.

How SCADA Works

The measurement and control system of SCADA has one master terminal unit (MTU) which could be called the brain of the system and one or more remote terminal units (RTU). The RTUs gather the data locally and send them to the MTU which then issues suitable commands to be executed on site. A system of either standard or customized software is used to collate, interpret and manage the data. SCADA as of now uses predominantly open-loop control systems, though some closed-loop characteristics are often built in. As this is an open-loop system, it means that SCADA system cannot use feedback to check what results its inputs have produced. In other words, there is no machine-learning.

SCADA and Other Control Systems

There are several other systems that are used for similar purposes as SCADA. These are generally called Distributed Control Systems (DCS). The functions are the same; the difference is in the range. Distributed Control Systems are typically effective within a confined area like a factory complex. Thus the communication is carried out through a local area network (LAN). These networks are highly dependable and fast, and can manage closed-loop (feedback based) control. DCS networks have their limitations. They cannot cover large territories. This is where SCADA comes in handy. However the communication systems are not as reliable as a LAN, and therefore it is not viable to implement closed-loop control. Right now, the size and scope is what mark SCADA.

Riktesh Srivastava PhD Internet Technologies MS (Electronics and Communicatios)
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Saturday, November 15, 2014

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Wednesday, November 12, 2014

How We All Benefit When We Choose Energy

America’s bright new energy future has not only repositioned our nation on the world stage, but perhaps more importantly it has led to enormous benefits for our families, communities and our economy right here at home. When we choose to support greater energy production, we are choosing to support an increase in jobs, a stronger economy and greater energy security.

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Data Monitoring Systems - Why Are SCADA Systems Important?

Data monitoring systems such as SCADA are becoming more and more relevant in today's business environment. SCADA which actually stands for supervisory control and data acquisition is a system that is being used by a variety of businesses nowadays. The entire system is actually a well planned network of interconnected computers. There are a number of remote terminal units that do the process of collecting data from the field and sending it to the central station master, through the network of the communication system that is in place.

One of the biggest advantages with the system in place is the fact that the top management always has timely and accurate data available to them at any time. The real time data can be used by them to optimize the operation of a plant or a business process. The system enables considerable improvement in the efficient running of a plant. Moreover, it also ensures data safety, another crucial aspect that needs to be considered by businesses today. When viewed from a company's perspective, the system is invaluable, with it lessening the operating cost quite significantly. The efficiency of the system directly translates into higher profits for businesses operating in various different sectors.

It is important that SCADA systems are used by competent staff that is well trained on using the system. There are times when companies may not pay heed to this important aspect in their eagerness to install the system. There are software complexity issues that need to addressed by the top management while they go about the process of implementing the system. The smooth running of the system needs the perfect and coordinated running of the different components that make up the system. For example, it is just not enough if the communication links are working properly, because it is also important for the transducers and control devices are also working in perfect coordination with the rest of the system.

Well planned data monitoring systems form the lifeline of industries these days. It is important that businesses also take care of training their staff on SCADA systems for it will help in maximizing profit and the smooth running of the business.
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Thursday, November 6, 2014

What is the SCADA System?

A SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system is a system that consists of a number of remote terminal units (RTU) that collect the field data and connected back to the station master through the communication system.

Accurate and timely data (usually a real-time) provide optimization of the operation of the plant and process. Another advantage is more efficient, more reliable and more important, safe operation. All this results in the operating cost is lower compared with the previous non-automated systems.

There is a reasonable level of confusion between the definition of SCADA systems and process control systems. SCADA have additional remote control or remote operation. The question is not how 'far' - that usually means more of a distance so that the distance between the location and control of the location controlled very large direct-wire control is not useful (for example, a communication link important component of the system).

SCADA successful installation depends on using proven and reliable technology, with comprehensive and adequate training of staff in the operating system. There is a history of failed SCADA systems - factors that contribute to this system, including inadequate integration of the various components of the system.

Today hardware reliability is less of a problem, but the increasing software complexity is producing new challenges. It should be noted in passing that many operators judge a SCADA system not only by the smooth performance of the RTUs, communication links and the master station (all falling under the umbrella of SCADA system) but also the field devices (both transducers and control devices).

Richard Binder, SCADA Security Specialist. Visit my website about SCADA at
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Monday, November 3, 2014

Taking The Mystery Out Of Electric Usage: Submetering Solves The Problem

Quadlogic has provided electric submetering systems for residential and commercial customers for 25 years. Our patented Power Line Communications technology is what sets us apart. By utilizing a building's existing power lines to transmit metered data, no additional wiring or meter readers are required. Leading electrical contractors, property owners and property managers depend on the accuracy and reliability of our equipment. Our meters are also capable of receiving pulse data from water, gas and BTU meters for a complete utility metering solution.

At Frontline Environmental Technologies, we have a wide variety of solutions for many business needs. See more at